PCB4023 Molecular & Cell Biology Course Paper


PCB4023 Molecular & Cell Biology Course Paper

Instructor: Prof. S. Williams

A Nobel Endeavor: Review of scientific discovery and innovation in cell & molecular biology


Over the past 40 years significant strides have been made that vastly expanded our knowledge and understanding of biological phenomena. Some of these scientific breakthroughs have received great accolades in recognition of their importance and impact. For this paper you will write a review of a selected Nobel prize-winning research that led to a major discovery of an important biological process/principle or scientific innovation related to topics covered by this course.

You must choose ONE scientific discovery from the list provided and your review must include the following components:

  • Introduction. A description of the scientific discovery and the scientist(s) who conducted the research.
    • The institutions and relevant period of time where/when the work was done.
    • Citation(s) of the original publication(s) of the research.
    • Description of the current knowledge at that time. What was known? What was unknown? Were there any other competing theories or alternative points of view?
  • Experimental Methodology. A description of ONE of the experimental methods used by the investigator(s). Describe the results and conclusions of the experiment.
  • Illustration. Include a diagram illustrating the mechanism/process/principle identified. The illustration must be properly cited from its original source.
  • Impact. Describe the significance of the investigators’ findings and its impact on our knowledge of molecular biology. Cite at least one example of research that was based on the original discovery.
  • Your review should be 3 – 4 pages in length (min: 3, max: 4) typed, 1.5-spaced 12-pt font. A bibliography in APA format is REQUIRED and is not included in your page count. Do not add cover pages, photos or charts to your review. This is an assessment of your original writing so please review the College’s policies on academic dishonesty and plagiarism at http://www.mdc.edu/policy/student_rights_and_responsibilities.pdf.
  • The grading parameters are as follows:
Paper Component Points Awarded
Introduction 15
Experimental Methodology 10
Impact 10
Illustration 5
Bibliography 5
Presentation (spelling, grammar, creativity) 5
Total 50

An “A” Paper/Essay: A paper that is exceptional. It is interesting or unusual and demonstrates sophistication of thought. The main points are clear, complex, well developed, and well supported. The structure of the paper follows a clear logical organization, and all sources are critically examined. The sources are current, relevant, of high quality, and well-integrated in the paper. The paper is free of grammatical and spelling errors.

A “B” Paper/Essay: A paper that is solid and fulfills the assignment. It has a clear logic but minor lapses in development. It touches on the complexity of the argument and shows careful reading of the sources. The structure follows a logical progression of ideas, but not all evidence is clearly related to the main ideas. It may contain a few grammatical problems, but not enough to make reading difficult.

A “C” Paper/Essay: A paper that is adequate but less effective in responding to the assignment. It presents the central idea in general terms and demonstrates basic comprehension of the sources. It is difficult to find a logical structure to the argument, and the paper often relies on generalizations or unrelated examples. Sentences may be awkward or confusing enough to make reading difficult.

A “D” Paper/Essay: A paper that does not respond to the assignment. The argument may be too vague or there is little complexity to the ideas. The organizations can be difficult to follow, and the paper offers insufficient evidence from the literature. No integration of the literature reviewed is evident.

An “F” Paper/Essay: A paper that does not respond to the assignment, has no central argument, and uses no sources. There is little apparent organization. There is no supporting evidence, or it is irrelevant.

  • Doing your research. This paper requires a survey/search of scientific literature. Databases such as Google Scholar and NCBI PubMed are highly recommended for locating scientific papers and reviews relevant to your selected topic. The MDC library online databases are also an excellent resource for research. To access the MDC databases, you will need to go to the library webpage (accessible from college website) and log in using your student ID number and the last 4 digits of your student ID as the password.



  • JUNE 11, 2019


  • A paper copy submitted to the instructor
  • An electronic version uploaded to a designated Turnitin Folder on Blackboard
  • Turnitin matching report must NOT exceed 20%. Papers exceeding 20% will not be accepted.

OPTIONAL: Students may submit an early draft for review by the professor. The “draft” must be a COMPLETE paper and must be submitted as a MS Word Document (.doc/.docx) attachment via email (following submission to Turnitin) no later than May 28th, 2019.


The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2018

James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo

“for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation.”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2016

Yoshinori Ohsumi

“for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy”.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2015

Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich and Aziz Sancar

“for mechanistic studies of DNA repair”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013

James E. Rothman, Randy W. Schekman and Thomas C. Südhof

“for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012

Sir John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka

“for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2012

Robert J. Lefkowitz and Brian K. Kobilka

“for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009

Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Carol W. Greider and Jack W. Szostak

“for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009

Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Thomas A. Steitz and Ada E. Yonath

“for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008

Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie and Roger Y. Tsien

“for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007

Mario R. Capecchi, Sir Martin J. Evans and Oliver Smithies

“for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2006

Roger D. Kornberg

“for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006

Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello

“for their discovery of RNA interference – gene silencing by double-stranded RNA”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2004

Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko and Irwin Rose

“for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002

Sydney Brenner, H. Robert Horvitz and John E. Sulston

“for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death’”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001

Leland H. Hartwell, Tim Hunt and Sir Paul M. Nurse

“for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1999

Günter Blobel

“for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1997

Stanley B. Prusiner

“for his discovery of Prions – a new biological principle of infection”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995

Edward B. Lewis, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard and Eric F. Wieschaus

“for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1994

Alfred G. Gilman and Martin Rodbell

“for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1992

Edmond H. Fischer and Edwin G. Krebs

“for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1989

Sidney Altman and Thomas R. Cech

“for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA”

The post PCB4023 Molecular & Cell Biology Course Paper appeared first on EssayAgents.com.


Source link

Do you need a similar assignment done for you from scratch? We have qualified writers to help you. We assure you an A+ quality paper that is free from plagiarism. Order now for an Amazing Discount!
Use Discount Code "Newclient" for a 15% Discount!

NB: We do not resell papers. Upon ordering, we do an original paper exclusively for you.

When The Government Prints Money Essay


Essay Written For: Danet Espinosa 

College: Miami Dade College

Name of the Instructor

Course Number

Due Date

When The Government Prints Money

Responsible governments around the world, in spite of having the right to print money, just do not do it. If it did print and handed out twice as much money as it was in the economy, that would not make life easier at all. The Tapese would not end-up affording an extra bag of corn each (Seitz 32). Instead, prices would just rise, and the residents would be in exactly the same place as they are at the moment. Cassidy (111) argues that this has been observed over and over again when the government decreed increase in wages.

The Consequences of Having More Money in Circulation

Before the invention of money, individuals exchanged their produce with the things they could not produce. This is called barter trade. It is inefficient since one has to keep on looking for a person who really wants the items they possess while at the same time having what is needed by themselves (Brown 34). In essence, there was the ‘double incidence of wants’ challenge. Another challenge is that without money, one might find it hard to save up what they produced. There would be what Seitz (32) refers to as the ‘retention of value’ problem. This is why money is important.

When people get more money into their pockets, there are those who might save and/or invest it. Nonetheless, history has shown that most of it is likely to be spent on consumables and such items as televisions and iPads. Buckley (16-7) suggests that it is surprising that most people tend to rush out to purchase the same items. What happens is that the sellers have inadequate number of items, yet the demand is too high. They decide to raise the prices, and a massive inflation results (Printz 535).

Inflation means that the money in possession of Tapese would worth a lot less. For instance, if US$100 was enough to purchase a bag of corn, it may require US$200 or more to acquire corn of the same quantity. The money becomes valueless. In the end, the goal of increasing individuals’ purchasing power is missed.

According to Brown (34), there are those who say raising prices is greed on the part of the businessman, and that they would not do it if they were in business. The question is if this is really unavoidable. Supposing a seller of corn is finding it hard to meet the demand, they will get in touch with the suppliers and push for their case. On their part, the suppliers would pressure the farmers to avail more maize. The farmers might argue that for that to happen, they need to hire more labor force, and invest more in other factors of production. That, therefore, justifies the rise in prices at the source (Printz 540).

It is not if one would or would not raise prices, it is just that the new situation in the market will have caused a hike in prices at every level. A businessman must increase the price, or simply get edged out of the market. In essence, the increase in prices by the retailer might not necessarily mean that they are making super normal profits (Buckley 20-1). The margin might remain the same, or increase just a little bit. In fact, they might not even afford to do business in an environment where they must pay their employees more and the cost of everything else doubles. This is why prices keep on rising (Seitz 32).


The invention of money was an important step. Money is valuable, but printing more cannot make people richer. This is because the value that money has is derived from the available goods and services. The mere act of printing more money does not make more services and goods appear. What happens is that the value of the existing goods and services get spread-out (Cassidy 112). This is what inflation means. Essentially, the average price levels are equivalent to the available number of dollars divided by the available goods and services. It is apparent that doubling the number of dollars in the economy has the effect of doubling the prices. People do not become better off since wealth comes from the goods and services which money buy (Printz 555).

Works Cited

Brown, Abram. “Printing Money: October 1, 1969.” Forbes, vol. 198, no. 3, Sept. 2016, p. 34

Buckley, Allen. “Why DC Plans Make Sense for Taxpayers and Governmental Employees.” Journal of Pension Benefits: Issues in Administration, vol. 21, no. 3, Spring 2014, pp. 16–26

Cassidy, John. “Printing Money.” New Yorker, vol. 91, no. 37, Nov. 2015, pp. 111–114

Printz, Neil. “Making money/printing painting: Warhol’s dollar bill paintings.” Criticism, vol. 56, no. 3, Summer 2014, pp. 535–557. EBSCOhost, doi:10.13110/criticism.56.3.0535

Seitz, Patrick. “Crime pays for take-two: ‘Grand theft auto’ keeps printing money.” Investors Business Daily, 25 Oct. 2017, p. 32

The post When The Government Prints Money Essay appeared first on EssayAgents.com.


Source link

Do you need a similar assignment done for you from scratch? We have qualified writers to help you. We assure you an A+ quality paper that is free from plagiarism. Order now for an Amazing Discount!
Use Discount Code "Newclient" for a 15% Discount!

NB: We do not resell papers. Upon ordering, we do an original paper exclusively for you.

Government May Improve Markets Essay


Essay Written For: Danet Espinosa 

College: Miami Dade College

Name of the Instructor

Course Number

Due Date

Government May Improve Markets Essay

Mergers and acquisitions (or M&A) lead to the consolidation of firms and/or assets via a couple of legal financial transactions. M&A include a host of transactions. What is of essence is that in all cases, the companies involved combine their resources and efforts towards cornering the market to their own advantage. If this goal is achieved, the big enterprise becomes a monopoly. Those in favor of monopolies argue that they are primarily about enhancing efficiency, while those opposed to the practice cite the kind of inequality they produce (Dolliver 36; Zanella 381).

Characteristics of Monopolies

There are about five major characteristics of monopolies, and these include having a single seller as a vast portion of the market is under the control of a single firm. Second, the goods produced lack close substitutes. The monopoly becomes the price maker, and hence it can manipulate the prices and change the quantity of its produce which hence shifts the supply-curve as it wishes. This has been observed with electric companies in California (da Costa 509).

If Brazil’s sugar industry becomes monopolized, there will definitely be high entry barriers. New firms, especially those without a strong financial basis, will find it impossible to enter the market. Since there will be no immediate competition, firms could continue making profits in the long term. This is unfair. Even though there is lack of close competition, monopolies do still invest in advertisement of their products. The idea is to increase demand and entrench the culture of consumerism. The people keep on wanting higher and higher quantities of the goods and services (Dolliver 36).

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Monopolies

Stoller (18-9) argue that large businesses tend to be more efficient, and this could mean a reduction in prices of goods and services they produce. Nonetheless, that is a possibility, but it does not mean that every firm will lower the prices if and when it has an opportunity. According to Zanella (381), another advantage is that monopolies could hire a large number of employees. In addition, they have what it takes to produce huge quantities of goods, which means that the market will be adequately supplied.

Monopolies have the money and opportunity to invent. However, these are just possibilities. In most cases, the only reason firms decided to take a bold step of coming together was to streamline their efforts and increase their profits. Therefore, it is illogical to conclude that their first or second priority is to engage in such charitable undertakings as offering jobs to the residents, or lowering prices. This is why it is imperative to consider their obvious disadvantages (da Costa 526-7).

Monopolies will do all they can to impede the success of smaller business organizations. That was one of the main reasons they joined forces in the first place, that is, to corner the market. Stoller (24) argue that there are also cases where they take advantage of their employees. Pollution is yet another major challenge, yet even the clients cannot punish them by boycotting their products. They are the only ones availing products into the market. Worse still, most monopolies end-up influencing the government. As they corner the market, therefore, they also corner the politics (Stoller 21; Zanella 381).


A monopoly is characterized by lack of competition. In the case of the sugar producers in Brazil, this would be lack of competition in accessing raw materials, producing the goods in question, and viable substitutes become almost nonexistent. In most cases, monopolies end-up rising prices way beyond their reasonable marginal cost. A high profit is earned as a result, and this further increases their power. The government of Brazil need to come-up with laws which discourage the cornering of the market to maintain vibrancy in the market (da Costa 520).

Works Cited

da Costa, Camila Furlan, et al. “The financing of culture in Brazil between 2003 and 2015: A path for generating monopoly rent.” RAP: Revista Brasileira de Administração Pública, vol. 51, no. 4, July 2017, pp. 509–527. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1590/0034-7612162254

Dolliver, Mark. “Condemning big business, but lauding the small sort.” Adweek Eastern Edition, vol. 42, no. 24, June 2001, p. 36

Stoller, Matt. “The return of monopoly.” New Republic, vol. 248, no. 8/9, Aug. 2017, pp. 18–25

Zanella, Fernando C., et al. “Monarchy, monopoly, and mercantilism: Brazil versus the United States in the 1800s.” Public Choice, vol. 116, no. 3/4, Sept. 2003, p. 381. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1023/A:1024807728596

The post Government May Improve Markets Essay appeared first on EssayAgents.com.


Source link

Do you need a similar assignment done for you from scratch? We have qualified writers to help you. We assure you an A+ quality paper that is free from plagiarism. Order now for an Amazing Discount!
Use Discount Code "Newclient" for a 15% Discount!

NB: We do not resell papers. Upon ordering, we do an original paper exclusively for you.